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TIRES: What You need to know

 
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Old 06-26-2011, 04:21 AM
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Icon14 TIRES: What You need to know

Ladies And gentlemen Of Prelude Zone: It has come to my attention that there is no Official Tire Thread. having said that, Lets begin:

Tire Review Thread
This thread detail personal experiences With tires that fit our members' vehicles, reviews and general knowledge beneficial to people that just don't buy tires enough, and don't want to waste time.



A quick breakdown of tires:

Tires are the only contact between the car and the road and affect both the fuel economy and the safe operation of any vehicle. Most cars of today are equipped with radial-ply tires. The Name "Radial-Ply" refers to the orientation of the tire's internal layers. In a radial-ply tire, the reinforcing cords are aligned with the radius of the outer diameter



Radial-ply construction reduces rolling resistance, lengthen tread life, and improves the handling qualities of the vehicle. Vehicles originally equipped with radial ply tires should be fitted with radial-ply tires when replacements are needed. It is best not to mix radial ply tires with non radial tires on a car or truck. All tires should be of the same construction to assure safe handling."



Sipes and Tread Blocks
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Siping was invented and patented in 1923 under the name of John F. Sipe. The story told on various websites is that, in the 1920s, Sipe worked in a slaughterhouse and grew tired of slipping on the wet floors. He found that cutting slits in the tread on the bottoms of his shoes provided better traction than the uncut tread. Another story is that he was a deckhand and wanted to avoid slipping on a wet deck.

The process was not applied to vehicle tires on a large scale until the 1950s, when superior tread compounds were developed that could stand up to the siping process. On roads covered with snow, ice, mud, and water, sipes usually increase traction. A US patent to Goodyear claimed sipes improve tire traction as well, and tend to close completely in the tire "footprint" on the road. A 1978 study by the US National Safety Council found siping improved stopping distances by 22 percent, breakaway traction by 65 percent, and rolling traction by 28 percent on glare ice.

Tire tread block shapes, groove configurations, and sipes affect tire noise pattern and traction characteristics. Typically, wide, straight grooves have a low noise level and good water removal. More lateral grooves usually increase traction. Sipes are small grooves that are cut across larger tread elements. Up to a point, more sipes give more traction in snow or mud.

As is often the case, there are compromises. Winter tires, and "mud and snow" tires, may have thousands of sipes and give good traction. But, they may feel "squirmy" on a warm, dry road. Treadless racing "slicks" on dry roads give maximum traction. These have no sipes, no grooves, and no tread blocks. They also have very poor traction however on even slightly wet surfaces. Tire manufacturers use different tread rubber compounds and tread designs for different tires' usages.

Large sipes are usually built into the tread during manufacturing. Sipes may also be cut into the tread at a later date, called "microsiping". Bandag developed a machine for microsiping which places a curved knife blade at a slight angle on a rotating drum. The drum is placed so when it is pressed against the tread the tire is pressed into an exaggerated hollow, as if driving down a rail. The drum is lubricated and rotated and the knife makes a series of diagonal cuts across the tread. For improved traction, the tire may be siped twice, leaving diamond-shaped blocks. A significant problem with field siping is that the tread picks up rocks, glass, and other hard road debris in use, and even with thorough cleaning the knife service life is often poor.



Side Wall Information



All passenger car and most truck tires have useful information for consumers molded right into the sidewall rubber. This is a consumer information requirement of the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards. Tire size, make and model, manufacturer's Identification code, maximum load rating, maximum inflation pressure and coded date Of manufacture are all molded into the tire sidewall.

Tire Size:
The common measure of tires today are the P-metric system. It will read in Metric dimensions P215/65R/15. The "P" stands for Passenger, Or if "LT" = Light Truck. The 215 is the width of your tire in millimeters, The Ratio of height to width (or aspect ratio) is the Percentage of the width of the tire as the Sidewall. 65% of 215mm equals... 140.4mm is your sidewall. The Easiest Part, The 15 is the Rim diameter (in inches, in case your confused). The R stands for Radial Ply tire. B stands for "Belted", and D means "Diagonal" (bias)-ply tire. Specialty tires also have a second number and letter after the Rim Diameter, the Load Index and Speed symbol. The Higher the Load Index is, The more the car can carry, The letter describes the speed / temperature the tire can endure before the tire bursts.

(FYI for anyone who wants to convert MM to inches, 1 inch equals 25.4mm. more on that later.)
Here are some charts:

Load Index=L.I.


L.I. Pounds Kilograms
71= 761 345
72= 783 355
73= 805 365
74= 827 375
75= 853 387
76= 882 400
77= 908 412
78= 937 425
79= 963 437
80= 992 450
81= 1019 462
82= 1047 475
83= 1074 487
84= 1102 500
85= 1135 515
86= 1168 530
87= 1201 545
88= 1235 560
89= 1279 580
90= 1323 600
91= 1356 615
92= 1389 630
93= 1433 650
94= 1477 670
95= 1521 690
96= 1565 710
97= 1609 730
98= 1653 750
99= 1709 775
100= 1764 800
101= 1819 825
102= 1874 850
103= 1929 875
104= 1984 900
105= 2039 925
106= 2094 950
107= 2149 975
108= 2205 1000
109= 2271 1030
110= 2337 1060



Speed Rating

L = 75 mph 120 km/h Off-Road & Light Truck Tires
M = 81 mph 130 km/h
N = 87 mph 140 km/h Temporary Spare Tires
P = 93 mph 150 km/h
Q = 99 mph 160 km/h Stud-less & Stud-able Winter Tires
R = 106 mph 170 km/h H.D. Light Truck Tires
S = 112 mph 180 km/h Family Sedans & Vans
T = 118 mph 190 km/h Family Sedans & Vans
U = 124 mph 200 km/h
H = 130 mph 210 km/h Sport Sedans & Coupes
V = 149 mph 240 km/h Sport Sedans, Coupes & Sports Cars
W = 168 mph 270 km/h Exotic Sports Cars
Y = 186 mph 300 km/h Exotic Sports Cars




Maximum Load/ Maximum Pressure

CHECK YOUR DOORS FOR THIS STICKER (at least resembling this LOL) If your tires do not have the information.





This info tells you How much Weight each tire can support and how much air the tire can hold. Didn't I just cover weight thing above? Well now you know what mechanics know. If the new tire's Maximum load doesn't match the Minimum Load Index of the old tires, don't buy those tires (higher is better). If the max Pressure is 44psi, DO NOT GO 45 FOR GOOD MEASURE! Your average pressure for a 44 PSI tire should be 40 all year round, and MAX if only you are carrying the Maximum load. The lower the pressure, the higher the risk you run of damaging your wheels, bottoming out and uneven tire wear. You should Carry a tire compressor and tire pressure gauge at all times (most kits run about 20.00) the pen, 1.00. Forget the digital gauge, those batteries die all the time in the glove box, LOL!

As owner of the vehicle you are Legally responsible for your tires being properly inflated and maintained. If some savvy CSI team discovers your tires were the reason you killed a bus load of nuns and schoolchildren... .

DON'T EVER EXCEED THE WEIGHT LOAD LIMIT OF THE TIRES!

MISC STUFF

Temperature rating and Tire wear and Traction


Temperature Rating is how hot the tire will get before it bursts. Mostly has to do with the Speed your going. If you have "Y" tires, you have about 10-15 minutes at 186mph before your tires go BYE-BYE and Shred. The Closer to A you are the better. "AA" rating is the best.

Tire wear is the Life of the tire. The higher the Number the longer the tire will last, While the lower the number, the better grip the tire is supposed to have. 300 is the middle rating, 200-lower is Performance orientated, and 400-higher is more economical, for lack of a better word.



WHAT PEOPLE SHOULD KNOW BEFORE BUYING TIRES:
"Tires have Expiration dates!!!"

The NAME OF THIS INFO IS CALLED "TIRE CODE NUMBER"- The Number starts as DOT, and is followed by 9 numbers/letters. It gives the ID of Tire
Manufacturer, And more importantly the date the tire was manufactured, to the week.

Example: If the last four digits are 4509, it means they were
made the 45th week of 2009. (That's old, you can ask for newer tires its your safety) Here's a Link for all the Manufacturers of tires so far...

All the D.O.T. Tire Plant Codes

I'm not going into Tire types because places like tirerack.com and tires.com has rating charts and search filters to find the tire you want. If you don't know a summer tire isn't for bobsledding, you need to sell your car.

How to UP SIZE / Upgrade Your tire:

YOU CANNOT WAIT TO GET 18'S UNDER YOUR CAR... I'll never understand why, LOL How do you choose your tire?
1.Listen to people who've done it
2.Go plus size at a Tire/rim website
3.DIY! MAAAAD easy! All you need is the calculator from your cell phone!

Quote:
Rim Diameter: RIM(inches)x25.4=(MM)
Wheel Diameter: Wheel aspect ratio(MM) + Rim Diameter(MM)


Remember the size 215/65/15? If the sidewall is 139.75 mm, then add your 15" rim.... FK! 25.4mm = 1inch so... 15x25.4= 381 + 139.75
COMES OUT TO 520.75 MM or 20.50 Inches overall diameter. As long as your wheel/ tire combination do not exceed the overall diameter, they will fit in the wheel well.


Now Lets see... 17" rims = 431.8mm.
520.75-431.8=88.95mm for side wall.
88.95/215= .431 x100= 43.1 aspect ratio!

OR... Just for new tire ratio

17" Rim - 15" rim = 2 inches (x25.4)= 50.8MM (ratio difference)
139.75(original aspect)-50.8= 88.95/215= .431X100=43.1 aspect ratio.


Round it off to the nearest 0 or 5; you can choose 40/45 aspect ratio in the world of tires, whichever is available or cheaper.

So since you want just an upgrade, you can use this size 215/45/17 with little affect on space the original tire took up.

I will not tell you how to use the formula to figure out what tire size you need with which rim, but you now have tangible information, rather than the guy in the rims store saying "Trust me Bubaleh, Those rims will fit no prob!" while standing in front of the "NO RETURNS ON MOUNTED TIRES OR RIMS" sign.

Shortcut:
Recommended Tire size & Offsets!
Here's a link to another great thread, for Rim/Tire combinations. Enjoy! Thanks to the members who made those threads worth their weight in gold!


Tire Care:
Thanks for making it this far! You have your tires inflated just right, you like the looks, but something is bothering you: How the Hell do I take care of them? Well, I'm glad you asked!
Some basic tools Tire Shops use and what you call them:
TOOLS
Tread Depth Guage



Tells you how much tire life you have left. I chose this one because it comes color coded with red meaning change your tire. With tire rotations, balancing and a properly inflated tire, you can get better gas mileage, even tire wear, And most use out of your tire. Also makes you look like some kind of automotive guru. You Place the pin between your tire tread blocks to the lowest point on your tire. The tool will tell you in inches and millimeters how much is left. No more tire guys telling you to change your tire when you have 10,000 miles left and whatnot.

Tire Inflater/Air Compressor


Puts air in your tires. Some have gauges, if they don't, you need a...

Tire Gauge


This handy little gadget tells you how much air your tire is holding. They can range from 0-150PSI (pounds per square inch for the JEOPARDY contestants. They also have a little nipple on the back to let out air by pressing on the Valve core needle. Speaking of which:

Valve Core


These guys hold in air and from time to time need to be replaced. Instead of getting charged money for having a slow leak replace these guys first to see if that was the problem. How? With this:

Valve Core Tool


Slime makes life easier by having a blister pack with both items! Whew! One side is to re-thread the valve cap, another re-threads the core, the third grinds out particles within the core, And of course to remove the valve core. Pretty Straight forward. Matco Tools also has a kit for that is expensive , but will never break, and if you are always changing cores, is 1000X more comfortable. (you can find it cheaper versions if you search valve core tool)

Anyway here is the more comfortable version:



Pretty easy Just fit it in.... That's what she said...

Valve Puller/Valve Tool


With every tire change you can ask the tech to change these

and that tool can remove and install. Easy Peasy. The Ridges in the Tool are used to secure the tool to the rim lip and as a lever pull the valve through, with little effort. Since valve locations change from rim to rim, those gadgets cover a lot of bases.

Tire Crush Tool/Bead Breaker



Breaks the bead/seal the tire has to the wheel. very much like a shovel and only youtube videos truly show how these work. And Finally...

Tire Changer



Does Exactly what the name says. Best to make some extended feet out of planks of wood to balance this thing. They're cheap ($50-$150), and you can make legs for it and after 10 tire changes, paid for itself. Works with tires up to 16", no low profile tires, no dubs please, LOL If your interested in doing road side service "ken tools" has what you're looking for.

Tire Patch Kit



There are two types, ones you can use without removing the tire and the ones you're supposed to use, from the inside of the tire. I left this last because it's pretty easy and doesn't need much explaining. One tool roughens up the puncture, the other tool inserts the plug. Then there is a rubber cement that helps seal the puncture and makes putting the plug in easier... yeah I know how it sounds.

A spray bottle of diluted dishwater. Wets / lubricates and helps find leaks.

Your average car owner will not think to get half these tools, but if you know what they are and like to commit you becoming one with your car, you can.
If you can find this one, great!



other methods:

TripleATireService's channel - YouTube to see more tire changing techniques



There's more, it's a question of seeing how it's done!
Thanks For Reading! As Usual, I'll add more info as it comes available!
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Last edited by Sideswipe SI; 09-03-2013 at 08:23 PM. Reason: Just because
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Old 06-26-2011, 09:03 AM
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Icon1 GO TO THE TIRE RACK

I get my tire info from the site in the link below .
With the cost of tires and rims being what they are ,getting critical information for the selection of your tires from a Wikipedia type thread could result in some costly purchasing errors.


Tire Tech at Tire Rack
The link below shows you what a $500 F Up looks like.


Horrible tire wear confusion. - Honda Prelude Forum - Prelude Online.com

Last edited by SHDRIVER; 06-27-2011 at 05:51 AM. Reason: give example@ change link to the tire rack
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Old 06-26-2011, 07:54 PM
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Re: TIRES: What You need to know

very good write up +1 rep for you my friend
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Old 06-26-2011, 09:00 PM
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Re: TIRES: What You need to know

Good write up!
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Old 06-27-2011, 02:09 AM
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Re: GO TO THE TIRE RACK

Quote:
Originally Posted by SHDRIVER View Post
I get my tire info from the site in the link below .
With the cost of tires and rims being what they are ,getting critical information for the selection of your tires from a Wikipedia type thread could result in some costly purchasing errors.


Tire Rack - Your performance experts for tires and wheels
Buddy did you read any of what he posted...

"Im not going into Tire types because places like tirerack.com and tires.com has rating charts and search filters to find the tire you want. If you
don't know a summer tire isn't for Bobsledding, you need to sell your car."

He's not telling people which tires to buy and which not, he is telling you ABOUT tires, what they are made of, what all the lettering on the sidewall means..

Before you try to bring down his whole thread with a link to where you get YOUR info try and read both his source and yours to see if they are accurate.

Seriously, why is this guy still allowed here?

To the OP, +rep for you for an informative post.
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Old 01-10-2012, 12:11 AM
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Re: TIRES: What You need to know

I agree with your thought.Thank you for your sharing
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Old 04-22-2012, 01:25 PM
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Re: TIRES: What You need to know

that's an nice stuff it would help me a lot good one lol.
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Old 10-03-2012, 05:59 PM
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Re: TIRES: What You need to know

thanks for taking the time to do this thread
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Old 09-07-2013, 04:48 PM
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Re: TIRES: What You need to know

great info!
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Old 09-11-2013, 07:37 PM
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Re: TIRES: What You need to know

Excellent write up
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Old 11-02-2013, 03:35 AM
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Re: TIRES: What You need to know

Great post. Thanks
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Old 05-04-2014, 12:59 AM
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Re: TIRES: What You need to know

Nothing going on here... Keep on searching. Just needed speed rating info. Keep along
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Old 08-12-2014, 01:26 AM
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Re: TIRES: What You need to know

really nice post dude. I even printed the pic of the tire and all the descriptions to what the numbers on a tire means. I'm going to take it to work with me and post it on the bulletin. Thanks.
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Old 01-29-2015, 08:43 PM
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Re: TIRES: What You need to know

I'm
Running 215 45 17
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